***Answer all questions in complete sentences(3 pages for 10 questions)
A “Quilombo” is a community of runaway slaves. This film is set in Palmares, the largest and most well-known of these quilombos. The timeframe is 17th century Brazil. This quilombo came to resemble a pseudo-African state with a population of about 20,000 people at its height. Palmares, and other quilombos like it represented a threat to the Portuguese landowners and to the Colonial establishment. This one was perceived as such a threat, that between 1672 and 1694, it withstood an average of one invasion every 15 months by “bandieras” (armed expeditions into the interior to recapture the African ex-slaves).
1) Describe conditions on the sugar plantations at the beginning of the film. What is the significance of the “garrote” episode?
2) What is life like in Palmares? Who is accepted up there?
3) What are some examples of African efforts at solidarity (togetherness, fostering community) in Palmares. What folkloric aspects can you identify?
4) What method(s) were utilized to educate the younger generations? What category/categories of folklore were being deployed in the process? Explain your answer.
5) What sort of economic activities take place in Palmares? How was the distribution of this production organized? What folkloric categories can you discern? Explain your answer.
6) Why were royal governments so persistent in destroying Palmares and other quilombos (runaway communities) like it?
7) What caused the rift between Zumbi and Ganga Zumba that ultimately leads to dissension within Palmares?
8) In the end, why must everyone in Palmares be exterminated?
9) Discuss why this quilombo is referred to as the “Black El Dorado”. To which category of folklore would you assign this notion of a “Black El Dorado?”
10) Discuss the issue of African cultural retention as seen in this film. What sort of customs, traditions, religious practices, etc… do the Africans seem to be hanging on to despite the institution of slavery and the European onslaught?
*****Essay(3 pages): In an essay of no less than three pages, identify the Yoruba deities appealed to in Palmares, and the role they played in the spiritual and social life of the people of Palmares.