objectives. • Discussions surrounding the dependent variable. What is the incidence of it and what has been the major concern by sociologists in studying it. Why are you interested in studying it? • A brief explanation of why your study is necessaryand important. • Explicitly state your research question, hypotheses.
• Discussion of sociological theories that are relevant to your topic. Note the key differences between theory and literature review: whereas theories provide general explanations on why X should be related to Y, they often do NOT provide hard evidence or data. • Summary of existing literature. Here we synthesize past research on whether X is related to Y. Be sure to group articles together by writing points. If several articles have found that X affects Y, just make the substantive point once and cite all articles. • Summary of what is known and the “problem “with it. • What your research will do to expand our knowledge or fill a gap in the literature.
Your Methods section should address the following: • Sample/data – the name of your data set; how the sample was drawn; your analytical sample – why this data set is appropriate for your research question • Measures – adetailed description of each variable in your analysis • Analytical strategy – what statistical techniques you will use (e.g., t-test, chisquare, regression)
This section is basically written in statistical terms. It will include the following subsections:
• Descriptive Statistics –descriptions of graphs and frequency tables for each of your IV and DV variables. – You may reported one variable at a time separately. – You can also integrate the two variables in one graph or in one cross-tabulation table. • Inferential Statistics–this is the core part where you study the relationship between IV and DV by doing ttest/ANOVA/chi-square/regression
1. First, write a specific research question. Sometimes you may need to think about several questions to help you narrow the topic.
Research question: Does family income when they are teenagers would affect their pursuit of higher education
2. Second, state a specific hypothesis or hypotheses related to what you think is the best research question. A hypothesis identifies a clear independent and dependent variable. It states a direction of association (positive, negative, neutral). It can usually be written into an “if, then” statement. Even a research question that is sufficiently narrow (especially those that are more descriptive) may have multiple hypotheses.
Hypothesis: The means of family income represents the effect on individual’s pursuit of higher education. Which family incomes is given great important for better education for the individuals future.
3. Last, clearly list your independent variable(s) and the dependent variable(s), with variables’ names and original survey questions for each variable.
Dependent Variable: “EDUC”
Original survey question:
ASK ALL PARTS OF QUESTION ABOUT RESPONDENT BEFORE GOING ON TO ASK ABOUT R’S FATHER; AND THEN R’S MOTHER; THEN R’S SPOUSE, IF R IS CURRENTLY MARRIED.
A. What is the highest grade in elementary school or high school that (you/your father/ your mother/your [husband/wife]) finished and got credit for? CODE EXACT GRADE.
B. IF FINISHED 9th-12th GRADE OR DK*: Did (you/he/she) ever get a high school diploma or a GED certificate? [SEE D BELOW.] [See REMARKS]
C. Did (you/he/she) complete one or more years of college for credit–not including schooling such as business college, technical or vocational school? IF YES: How many years did (you/he/she) complete?
Do you (Does [he/she]) have any college degrees? (IF YES: What degree or degrees?) CODE HIGHEST DEGREE EARNED.
Independent Variable: “INCOM16”
Original survey question:
“Thinking about the time when you were 16 years old, compared with American families in general then, would you say your family income was–far below average, below average, average, above average, or far above average?”
Ashtiani, Mariam and Cynthia Feliciano. 2015. “Access and Mobilization: How Social Capital Relates to Low-Income Youth’s Postsecondary Educational (PSE) Attainment.” Youth & Society 50(4):439–61
This study illustrates that youth in a higher family context have more access to rescources in educational achievement. In contrast youth who are from low income families are capable to also achieve educational achievement. Its focus of this study shows that, in order that youth to achieve their goals they need mobilized social capital which consist in three context. These context are families, schools, and communities. The study also examines that mentorship can also support low income youth to complete their degree. The article relates to my research thesis because there is a possiblities that young adult who are in a low family context can able to achieve their competion toward higher education
Bloome, D. (2014). Income Inequality and Intergenerational Income Mobility in the United States. Social Forces, 93(3), pp.1047-1080.
In this research the article talks about the relationship between family income inequality and income mobility across generation in the U.S. It is understood that parents resources that are avaliable to imrove their children health, education, and care are divided. This article research relates to my research because it gives an understanding that in the U.S family income represents the avaliable resources for children in presuit of higher education.
Bozick, Robert and Stefanie Deluca. 2010. “Not Making the Transition to College: School, Work, and Opportunities in the Lives of Contemporary American Youth.” Social Science Research 40:1249–62
This study illustrates that young adults are uncapable to pursuit higher education because the enconomic barries are too expensive in college affodability or family finacial responsibility. It has also found that young adults who had access to academic achievment and family support perfer not to pursuit education because they perferred to work and make money. This research relates to my research because it give the undeerstanding the differences of young adults choices on educational achievements that means to them.
Duncan, G., Kalil, A. and Ziol-Guest, K. (2017). Increasing Inequality in Parent Incomes and Children’s Schooling. Demography, 54(5), pp.1603-1626.
In this reseach the article talks about the history of income inequality and the educational achievement. It explains that there are gaps between high and low income children who are in school. It is found that the two parent family structures of the high and low incomes families shows some association og the gap of pursuit of higher education. This article relates to my reseach because it will give me and understanding the history that gaps that represent the family income and the educational systems resources for children to achieve their higher education.
Napolitano, L., Pacholok, S. and Furstenberg, F. (2013). Educational Aspirations, Expectations, and Realities for Middle-Income Families. Journal of Family Issues, 35(9), pp.1200-1226.
This study illustrates the struggle of the middle class families that are attempting to inspired their children to pursit higher education as they are going through fincacial constrains. It understood that in their findings there are finacial insecurity that the families who are in the low and middle class going through because the lack of governmental support and this show some inequality for children to pursuit higher education is becoming more difficult as it seems. This study relates to my research as this will be giving some understand that parents would want their children to pusuit higher education but as the cost of college is rising more over the years it becomes increalsly difficult for the family to support their child higher education.